How sustainable is



Wool is a natural renewable fiber that has been used for clothing for thousands of years. It naturally has antibacterial properties and can help regulate the body temperature. There are sheep that produce corse wool as well as very fine wool as merino. The environmental impact of wool differs a lot depending on how the sheep are farmed and the region where the sheep lives. Traceability is always important, to choose merino wool from farms that work with regenerative farming and value animal welfare. European wool is considered a by-product while Australian merino is mainly bread for its wool. New Merino, ZQ and ZQRX are recommended, Textile Exchange certification RWS (Responsible Wool Standard) is not bad, and organic wool also exists (GOTS for example). Choosing local European wool generally has the lowest environmental impact and guarantees highest animal welfare standard. Choose mulesing-free wool if Merino wool comes from Australia. Recycled wool is a very good option for low environmental footprint. Bergstrand Consultancy has a focus on wool and wool supply chains, Get in touch to learn more on how to choose the best wool with the lowest environmental impact.

bergstrand material GUIDE ranking*

Depending on how the sheep are farmed, wool can either be ranked as Preferred or Approved.


Approved materials may be less expensive than preferred materials, but may not be as ethical or sustainable in their production. While approved materials are not considered the best option, they may be used in clothing production as long as certain standards and guidelines are followed.


Preferred materials are considered to be the most environmentally friendly, sustainable, and ethical options for clothing production. These materials are often made from natural, renewable resources, and are processed using eco-friendly methods that have minimal impact on the environment. These materials are typically more expensive than synthetic alternatives, but are considered to be worth the extra cost due to their positive environmental and ethical impact, as well as longevity.
* The Bergstrand Material Guide Ranking is only a guide. Our consultants can help with accurate assessments of your brand’s use of materials.
Photography credit:
Emma Bergstrand

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